HI....While moving further, Let us first we clear out "What is gene decoding".Yes, Gene decoding means to change the genetics code. Scientist have done this things and now they also had a great results for genetics decoding. Scientists are now a days working hard to decode the dna gene.There are news related to genomic code cracking, i.e. decoding a dna gene.

Genomic Code Cracking.

Most recent discovery by a North Carolina State University biochemist advances the fundamental biology of how genetic information, encoded in DNA, is decoded for the production of proteins.
Dr. Paul F. Agris, professor of biochemistry at NC State, and academic colleagues from England and Poland show strong evidence regarding 1966 “Wobble Hypothesis” which was described  by Francis Crick who was  the co-founder of the DNA molecule and its double-helix structure, and Agris’ own “Modified Wobble Hypothesis” posed in 1991.

They used the x-rays crystallography of the cell’s protein manufacturing unit known as ribosome, to provide a visual snapshot of the decoding process. Natural Structural and Molecular Biology published this research in the December 2004.

It was state bye the Dr. Agris that the Wobble Hypothesis was Crick’s attempt to make sense of how the cell decodes the genetic information of DNA – the molecule that constitutes all the genetic information in a cell – and then, from that information they make the biologically active proteins.

Agris also explained that as they know that proteins are made of amino acids they translated DNA who has 61 three-letter codes by transfer RNA (tRNA) into amino acids. But there are only 20 natural amino acids. Squaring the disparity between the number of codes and the number of amino acids – there are three times as many codes as there are amino acids and this became a hurdle for Crick and other early geneticists. But Crick attempted to clear this hurdle with the Wobble Hypothesis. He based this theory on the first report of a tRNA(transfer RNA) molecule’s chemical structure which was discovered by Robert Holley in 1963.

Dr. Agris also stated that as RNA molecules are composed of four nucleosides: adenosine, guanosine, cytosine and uridine (A,G,C,U). But the tRNA molecule Holley studied included a modified nucleoside called inosine (I). Seeing this inosine in an important area of the tRNA(transfer RNA) molecule – an area that read the three-letter DNA codes when the cell synthesizes proteins this things led Crick to believe that a single tRNA used inosine to read more than one code, and that is why the 61 codes were decoded by fewer than 61 tRNAs.

For example, Dr. Agris used the amino acid alanine, which has four codes. The hypothesis of Crick's would allow that only two tRNA molecules could be capable to decode all four alanine codes. By using the modified nucleoside I in place of A, G, C or U, one tRNA may be able to read three codes, effectively “wobbling” the reading.

Agris proposed his Modified Wobble Hypothesis after Twenty-five years of the Wobble Hypothesis.Thus it was believe that modified nucleosides other than inosine would in some cases expand tRNAs ability to translate codes by wobbling to greater numbers of three-letter codes, whereas other modified nucleosides would prevent wobble to only one or two codes.

Dr. Agris and colleagues prove Agris’ alteration to Crick’s hypothesis was correct: Cellular modification of tRNA alters chemistry and structure in a manner critical for tRNA to decode more than one three-letter code.

By using atomic-level resolution, in which researchers can distinguish atom from atom and working with a tRNA specific for the amino acid lysine. After this Dr. Agris and his colleagues show modified nucleosides enabling tRNA to decode genomic information on the ribosome, the cell’s protein synthesis machinery.They also even prove this.

This result prove modifications enabling the decoding of two codes. One modification acts like a platform on which decoding takes place whereas  the other allows a novel chemical and physical interaction to occur between tRNA and the code.

Dr. Agris said that “This is the first visualization that modifications are critical for decoding the genome through wobble" and he also stated that 15 to 20 percent of tRNAs in all organisms require modified chemistries in order for codes to be properly read and protein synthesis to be successful. He also prove “An understanding of how modified nucleosides enable and improve wobble recognition of the three-letter codes for protein synthesis opens the possibility of using modified nucleosides to expand the cells’ use of tRNA to make new proteins, or in new ways to target the protein synthesis machinery in pathogens,”. 

Trial starts after gene decoding for Meningitis vaccine

Scientists accept decoded the absolute abiogenetic calligraphy of the bacillus that causes the best accepted anatomy of meningitis, and accept acclimated the advice to advance a accessible vaccine.

Scientists accept decoded the absolute abiogenetic calligraphy of the bacillus that causes the best accepted anatomy of meningitis, and accept acclimated the advice to advance a accessible vaccine.

Researchers advertise today in the account Science that they accept deciphered the abounding DNA arrangement of Neisseria meningitidis, the bacillus primarily amenable for the potentially baleful B-strain of meningococcal disease.

Working out the agenda cipher of the microbe's genes has accustomed the scientists to investigate 350 abeyant vaccines and analyze candidates for trials. There is no vaccine adjoin the B-strain, which can accept a accident amount of 15 per cent.

The allegation could be one of the aboriginal examples of vaccine development application the new science of "genomics", area gene sequences are acclimated as the base to advance new biologic articles from the "bottom up" Scientists from Oxford University's convention of atomic anesthetic collaborated with American gene-sequence and vaccine experts.

More analysis will be done afore vaccines can be activated on humans. The scientists accept they can acquisition a vaccine that will assignment adjoin added than one meningitis strain.

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